Liquid crystal phases are ordered fluid phases which occur between the solid and liquid phases of matter. They are formed by anisotropic molecules (i.e. not on average globular or spherical) which pack together to form an anisotropic fluid phase. Liquid crystal phases are typically birefringent (i.e. they have two different refractive indices) and are now used everywhere in the form of LCDs (although they also have many other applications).
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